The crews on Canadian vessels are trained in keeping with stringent, efficient standards. Initial and ongoing training, given in accordance with international conventions (e.g. SOLAS) and national regulations, aims to avoid any risk of accident or incident.
All seafarers must:
Hold certificates or licences, have general seamanship training and undergo regular medical exams
Take Marine Emergency Duty training (60-hour course)
Take a first aid course.
Pilots are licensed navigation officers that have more than 10 years of navigation experience, including a few years as a captain or first mate. They must also complete a 2 years training program to become a pilot.
Transport Canada sets a minimum crewing level for each vessel according to scheduled operations and distances.
For oil transport:
For marine transportation of oil, Transport Canada requires officers to have specific qualifications on their certificate of competency (petroleum product transportation)
Oil companies apply additional combined experience criteria for senior officers (time with the company, rank and type of vessel)